Integumentary system diseases

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Posted on 28th June 2013 by admin in Articles

Nails, hair, and human skin — the largest organ system of the body — all comprise of the integumentary system. The integumentary system is highly captivating, as it involves a number of incredible functions and purposes. With the help of the outer layer of dead and keratinized cells, one of the main functions of this system is to waterproof the body. Additionally, it protects the inner organs from being attacked by outside germs and infections, as well as preventing the body from losing water. This system can be considered to be the first line of defense for the body. Not only does it protect the internal organs, but it also helps to regulate temperature, detect pain, cleanse the body of toxins, and also plays an essential role in the synthesis of vitamin D.

Alopecia Areata – Alopecia Areata is a non-contagious disease and an autoimmune disorder that involves the hair follicles being attacked by the immune system. This condition leaves patients bald as it attacks all or most of the hair throughout all regions of the body, particularly the scalp. It is also often referred to as ‘spot baldness’ because that’s how it appears during its beginning stages.

Dermatitis – Dermatitis is the general term to describe inflammation of the skin. Atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis are two types of dermatitis. There are many causes for this disorder, and it can surface in various forms — starting out as an itchy rash and then progressing into a more widespread redness and swelling. Although not life-threatening or contagious, those afflicted with this condition can become very uncomfortable and very self-conscious.

Psoriasis – Psoriasis is another chronic, non-contagious, autoimmune disease of the integumentary system. This disease presents itself as red, scaly patches or lesions on the skin. These lesions or scaly patches are called psoriatic plaques. Psoriatic plaques are areas of increased skin production and inflammation.

Warts – Warts are characterized as small, round tumors that are embedded in the skin — usually found in or near the feet or the hands. The human papilloma virus is responsible for warts, including, but not limited to: Mosaic warts, genital warts, plantar warts, flat warts, and common warts. Warts are potentially contagious and can be spread from one person to another through contact. Their appearance may resemble a cauliflower or a solid blister.

Athlete’s Foot – Also known as tinea pedis. It is a fungal infection of the skin and causes flaking, scaling, and itching of certain areas of the skin. Athlete’s foot is spread when bare feet or skin come into contact with moist areas that are often encountered in bathrooms and showers. Although it commonly affects the feet, it can spread to other areas as well; including the groin. Athlete’s foot can be prevented by maintaining good hygiene practices.

Apart from the disease mentioned above, there are many different diseases found within the integumentary system. Some, of which, are: Acne, albinism, basil cell carcinoma, blisters, herpes, melanoma, other kinds of skin cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma. Damage done to the largest organ system of the body can prove to be quite serious.

Inner ankle pain

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Posted on 24th June 2013 by admin in Articles

Your ankle is a combination of ligament, bone, muscle and tendon. The ankle is strong enough to withstand the weight of your body, but it is still fragile enough to be prone to injury and pain. You may feel discomfort along your Achilles tendon, which connects your lower leg muscle to the bone in your heel. Home treatments are also an effective way to treat inner ankle pain, but it can take time for the pain to go away completely. If you have severe ankle pain after an injury or accident, you should visit your doctor right away.

Obviously, the most common cause of pain in the ankle is injury to the ankles, bones, tendons or ligaments. An ankle sprain is another reason for ankle pain; this occurs when the ankle is turned or twisted in an unnatural way. Aside from these main causes, inner ankle pain could be due to a number of other medical causes. These include Achilles tendonitis, along with a rupture in the Achilles tendon, septic arthritis, gout or osteoarthritis. An otherwise injured ankle or foot, as well as pseudogout, avulsion fracture and rheumatoid arthritis can also lead to ankle pain.

Inner Ankle Pain Treatment

Ankle pain treatment depends on the cause of the pain. If your ankle has been injured, the following tips may provide relief. However, if the pain is due to a medical condition, appropriate measures will have to be taken.

  • Get plenty of rest and refrain from sporting activities until your ankle has healed. This is especially effective if the injury to the ankle is minor.
  • Put as little weight on your ankle a possible. You can do this by using a cane or crutches. Orthotics or modifications to your normal footwear will also help to keep weight off your ankle, which can lessen the pain.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications help to reduce pain in the ankle as well. Naproxen and ibuprofen are common medicines that can treat your condition. These medicine modify substances in the body like prostagladins and COX-2 enzymes to reduce pain.
  • If you’ve injured your ankle and are now in pain, it is common for your ankle to swell. To reduce inflammation and pain, apply ice to the area as soon as you can. Don’t apply the ice directly to your ankle; wrap it in a towel and press the towel against your ankle. It’s best to do this about four times a day for two days in ten to fifteen minute increments. Don’t leave the ice on your ankle for too long, as this could cause damage to the ankle tissue.
  • Heating pads are effective if the pain is chronic; this method may help you if you have rheumatoid arthritis. The heat loosens and relaxes the tissues, and stimulates blood flow to the site of the pain. Heating pads can also relieve ankle discomfort if you’re experiencing pain from overuse.
  • It can take anywhere from a few weeks to a few months for your ankle to fully heal if it has been injured. Once the ankle is no longer hurting or swollen, you should exercise the ankle to strengthen it. This will loosen the tension in the ankle and stretch the tendon. Massaging your ankle with essential oil is also helpful, as this stimulates blood circulation.

Psoriasis of the liver

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Posted on 21st June 2013 by admin in Articles

Although many people believe that psoriasis is a clinical condition that just affects the body on the outside, and more specifically the skin, there is a condition that is known as psoriasis of the liver.

If psoriasis is caused by a problem with the liver then this condition is known as psoriasis of the liver. There are many potential causes of psoriasis which is a non-contagious skin condition. Although there is not much medical evidence to support the theory, it is believed that psoriasis could be caused by liver dysfunction. This condition is uncomfortable and can lead to other serious health problems. However, it is not life threatening.

It is not known exactly what causes psoriasis but there are a number of factors that may lead to a person developing this condition. It is estimated that 10 percent of the population have the genetic markers for psoriasis but only 2-3 percent of these people go on to develop the disease. This may indicate that genetics could play a role in causing psoriasis but there may also be other external triggers. Possible causes include psoriasis of the liver, food allergies and stress.

If the liver is unable to adequately clean waste from the body then psoriasis of the liver can occur. The liver acts as a type of filter for the body and breaks down ammonia, toxins and hormones. Levels of toxins in the body will be higher if the liver is not working correctly due to fibrosis or disease. It is thought that psoriasis may be caused by these toxins.

A link between the skin condition psoriasis and liver function has not been conclusively proven as there is little evidence of such a link. Cleansing the body through natural food therapy and vitamins is recommended by those who believe that this link exists. This treatment is only experimental but there are not likely to be any negative side effects to improving the diet and taking vitamin supplements. A doctor should be consulted before changing eating habits.

Psoriasis comes in a number of variations including guttate, plaque, erythrodermic, inverse and pustular psoriasis. Unsightly and uncomfortable skin lesions are caused by all these variations of psoriasis. When skin cells grow too rapidly and do not shed quickly enough then skin lesions occur. Psoriasis cells can cycle in just a few days compared with up to a month in normal cells. Rather than falling off these cells build up on the skin and cause lesions.

The entire body can be affected by psoriasis and treatment depends on which part of the body is affected. Topical and oral medications are commonly used to treat skin lesions. Eating healthily and taking regular exercise is also recommended as psoriasis increases the risk of other serious conditions such as heart disease. Increasing the intake of fat soluble vitamins and eating foods that are liver-friendly can be beneficial if psoriasis of the liver is suspected. Symptoms of psoriasis can be drastically reduced through the correct treatment but there is no cure.

Trying to conceive a girl

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Posted on 15th June 2013 by admin in Articles

More couple are starting to adopt various method for conceiving a baby girl. It’s understandable that when a couple is desperate to have a girl, they will likely try ridiculous things to achieve this goal. However, there have been a few techniques that have been noted for their success in couples having a girl. If you and your mate want to have a daughter, these tips may work for you.

Baby Girl Conception Methods

  • Shettles’ Method. This is one of the most popular ways for couples to have a baby girl, and has proven to be effective for a number of people. This conception method was developed in the 1960s by Dr. Landrum B. Shettles; the focus of the method is to educate couples about ovulation and the frequency of sexual intercoure that will increase the chances of the couple having a girl.

    Dr. Shettles asserts that a woman must be aware of her ovulation times to conceive a girl. Having sex two or three days before ovulation can significantly increase the chances that the couple will have a girl. The doctor also recommends that couples chart the mucus production of the cervix, along with documenting the basal body temperature of the woman. The physician suggests purchasing ovulation prediction kits to determine the right time to try for a baby as well.

    The doctor also make suggestions regarding sexual position and orgasm. For instance, he asserts that the missionary position is best for couples who want to have a girl because the penetration is shallow. This position allows the sperm to be closer to the vagina, which is a more acidic environment than the cervix. The acid in the vagina makes the sperm with Y chromosomes weaker, so that the X chromosomes become more fertile. The physician even states that women should avoid having an orgasm during sex if the goal is to have a girl. The orgasm will make the vagina especially alkaline, which is not favorable to X chromosomes.

  • O+12 Method. This method is the least popular for gender selection when it comes to conception, and not many people are aware of it. The conception idea as developed by an Australian woman who had 6 boy and wanted desperately to have a girl. Contrary to the method created by Dr. Shettles, this method suggests that couples should have sexual intercourse 12 hours after ovulation.
  • Whelan Method. This is a less popular way to conceive a girl, but has still yielded favorable results for couples . Dr. Elizabeth Whelan created this method, and it is the opposite of the Shettles’ method. Basal Body Temperature (BBT) is the main factor in this method, which reveals ovulation times and encourages intercourse very close to ovulation.
  • Diet and Supplements. It is a common belief that the intake of certain foods, supplements and even medications that can be purchased over the counter can aid a couple who want to be the parents of a little girl. Calcium and magnesium are said to increase the chances of having a girl. Food that can result in the birth of a baby girl include Parmesan cheese, yogurt, cranberries, cucumber, raspberries and strawberries. This is commonly called the “girl diet,” and makes the environment in the vagina more acidic so that the Y chromosomes can survive.

Excretory system diseases

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Posted on 12th June 2013 by admin in Articles

The excretory system regulates bodily fluids and is responsible for the elimination of waste. It is also referred to as the urinary system and is made up of the uretha, the ureters, the kidneys and the bladder. Diseases of the excretory system can affect a number of these areas or just one. The severity of such diseases can range to minor conditions to being serious enough to cause future complications.

Interstitial Nephritis – Interstitial nephritis is a disease that affects the kidneys. An inflammation occurs in the spaces between the kidney tubules which has a negative effect on the function of the kidneys making their ability to filter waste reduced. Acute forms of interstitial nephritis are usually caused by an allergic reaction to certain medications and are quite common. Chronic interstitial nephritis is a more serious condition and has the potential to lead to permanent kidney damage or kidney failure. It is usually caused when kidney damaging medications are taken for a long period of time. These medications can include NSAIDS or aspirin. A rash, fever, nausea and vomiting, changes in urine output, blood in the urine and swelling of the body are all symptoms of interstitial nephritis. The underlying cause of the condition will be a deciding factor in what type of treatment is chosen. Generally treatment will involve stopping use of the medications that may be causing the nephritis. Anti-inflammatory medicines may also be prescribed to reduce swelling. It is recommended that the patient follows a diet that is low in protein and low in salt. If the condition is particularly severe then dialysis may be required although this should only be necessary for a short period of time.

Urinary Tract Infection – A urinary tract infection is caused by a bacterial infection in one or more parts of the excretory system. The bacteria usually enters the body through the uretha and travels into the bladder. Urinary tract infections that are caused by bacteria that has spread to the kidneys from blood is very rare. Discomfort in the lower abdomen, blood in the urine, a burning sensation during urination, a frequent urge to urinate and pain in the pelvic area are all symptoms of an infection in the bladder. If the infection has traveled to the kidneys then the symptoms will include pain in the back, fever, chills and nausea and vomiting. In most cases a urinary tract infection can be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics may need to be administered intravenously in severe cases and this will result in hospitalization.

Nephrotic Syndrome – Nephrotic syndrome is a disorder of the kidneys. The excretion of excess protein in the urine is a characteristic of this disorder. The disorder is caused by damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys. These blood vessels are responsible for filtering waste and water from the blood and when these vessels become damaged protein can leak from the blood. Damage to these blood vessels is caused by other diseases that affect the kidneys such as heart failure and diabetic kidney disease. Foamy urine, weight gain and swelling near the eyes and of the ankles and feet are all symptoms of nephrotic syndrome. A series of medications can be prescribed to treat nephrotic syndrome including antibiotics, cholesterol lowering medications, blood pressure medications, immune suppressants, blood thinners and diuretics. Nephrotic syndrome can lead to a number of conditions if left untreated such as nutritional deficiencies, high blood pressure, blood clots and acute or chronic kidney failure.