Endocrine system facts

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Posted on 29th November 2013 by admin in Articles

The endocrine system is in charge of many important aspects of the body. The endocrine system contains glands that are responsible for the hormone production in the body. These glands regulate different life processes by coordinating cooperation between them efficiently. The hormones that are secreted by these glands serve as messengers that transfer vital information from one part of the body to the other. These hormones pass directly into the bloodstream for transference.

The nervous system and the endocrine system function similarly. The nervous system is responsible for sending out electrical messages to coordinate body organs; whereas the endocrine system releases chemicals to communicate to different parts of the body. These chemicals, also known as hormones, are synthesized and secreted by the endocrine gland. Development, growth, metabolism, and reproduction are all activated and maintained by the endocrine system. The term ‘endocrine’ refers to the body’s reaction to stimuli via hormone released into the bloodstream.

The Glands of the Endocrine System

The endocrine system is composed of six major glands. These glands are: The hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, the pineal gland, the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, and the reproductive glands or gonads (the ovary or testes, depending on gender).

Hypothalamus – The hypothalamus is located in the central part of the brain, and is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. It regulates body temperature and metabolism. It also secretes hormones that regulate the hormone secretions of the pituitary gland.

Pituitary Gland – No larger than the size of a pea, the pituitary gland is situated at the base of the brain, located just below the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland is often considered to be the most important gland in the endocrine system, because it regulates the hormone production of the other glands.

Thyroid Gland – The thyroid gland is located on the front part of the lower neck and is shaped like a butterfly. This gland secretes two different hormones: Triiodothyronine and thryoxine. The thyroid gland is in charge of controlling the body’s metabolism. There are four tiny glands that are attached to the thyroid, called ‘parathyroids’. They serve to regulate calcium in the blood. Additionally, the thyroid also plays a role in the development of the brain and of bone growth in young children.

Adrenal Glands – These pair of glands are located atop each kidney. They are triangular-shaped and consist of two different parts. The exterior of the gland is known as the ‘adrenal cortex’, and the interior is known as the ‘adrenal medulla’. These glands secrete hormones that are responsible for dealing with stress by increasing the body’s heart rate and blood pressure. Additionally, they maintain the water and salt balance in the body.

Pineal Gland – This gland is located in the center of the brain. It is responsible for the hormone production of melatonin. Melatonin regulates the wake and sleep cycle of the body.

Reproductive Glands – The reproductive glands, also called the gonads, are the primary source of sex hormones. The female glands are called ovaries, and they produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. The male glands are called testes, and they produce hormones called androgen and testosterone.

Pancreas – This organ has both digestive and hormonal functions. Insulin and glucagon are two very important hormones that are produced by this double gland. These hormones regulate blood sugar levels in the body. A decrease in the production of insulin can lead to diabetes.

Root canal vs extraction

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Posted on 23rd November 2013 by admin in Articles

Oral and dental hygiene is extremely important and everyone should try to maintain good standards of oral health. Poor dental hygiene can lead to complications with the teeth which may require a painful solution. Teeth that are not cared for properly are in danger of becoming infected. This infection can spread quickly to other parts of the mouth and even the rest of the body. Therefore it needs to be treated as soon as possible and this treatment will often involve making a decision between root canal and tooth extraction. Both these procedures will be painful for the patient but it is important to recognise the differences between the two procedures.

Root canal therapy is an extremely painful procedure and is also known as endodontic therapy. However, in spite of the pain that it causes, there are some situations where dentists would prefer to use root canal therapy. The main two reasons for root canal therapy are if the tooth is infected or if there is damage to the pulp of the tooth. Extraction of the tooth is also a solution for both these problems. If the space where the tooth has been extracted remains empty then it can cause problems for neighboring teeth. For this reason the use of an artificial tooth is recommended.

All the structures within the tooth are removed during the root canal process. When this has been completed the hollow chamber will be cleaned and shaped. When the root canal has been carried out, it will result in the tooth becoming dead but there will be no further risk of infection. A root canal is a very painful procedure and there is a risk that some of the tools that are used in the procedure may break inside the tooth. Advancements in dental science means that almost all of these procedures are carried out without incident although as with any medical procedure, there are some cases when things do go wrong. If there is a problem with the procedure this can cause discomfort to the patient and other complications may also occur. This is one of the reasons why patients are hesitant or anxious to undergo root canal therapy.

In nearly all cases a dentist would choose to perform a root canal rather than an extraction. This is because they would want to save the tooth if they are able. In extreme cases, tooth extraction may be the only option. If the tooth does have to be removed then further work will need to be carried out to fit replacement teeth and dental bridges. This is necessary to ensure that the remaining teeth do not begin to overlap and to provide the patient with the same natural chewing ability that they had before. Tooth extraction is sometimes seen as an alternative to a root canal because it is not as painful. However, extraction still is painful and has it’s own complications. It is also likely to cost more in the long run because of the need to be fitted with artificial teeth.

What does it mean when your eye twitches

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Posted on 23rd November 2013 by admin in Articles

The involuntary movement or muscle spasms of the eyelid are the products of a condition called ‘eye twitching’. Eye twitches can happen suddenly and disappear after only a few seconds. Unfortunately, eye twitches can last for far much longer than that. Usually it is a recurring symptom that can be more than just a nuisance. It can happen frequently and last up to a couple of days or even a month. In rare cases, it can become very difficult to open up the eyes because the symptoms have gotten to be so severe. In this article we will review both the causes of eye twitching and the methods of treatment.

Benign essential blepharospasm, a focal dystonia, is another reference to eye twitching. This neurological movement disorder causes involuntary and sustained contractions of the muscles surrounding the eyes. Fatigue, stress, and irritants are all factors that play into this condition — but the term ‘essential’ indicates that the cause is unknown. Usually the symptoms last for a few days and goes away on its own. Sometimes, however, they can persist and cause lifelong problems. Functional blindness is the result of these severe, but rare, cases.

The following list contains potential causes for eye twitching, both common and rare.

Causes of Eye Twitches

• Air Pollution
• Allergies
• Benign essential blepharospasm
• Blepharitis or inflammation of the eyelids
• Conjunctivitis
• Dry eyes
• Excessive alcohol and/or caffeine intake
• Inflammation of the cornea
• Lack of sleep
• Light sensitivity (also known as photophobia)
• Magnesium deficiency
• Stress and fatigue
• Vision problems

The most common cause of persistent eyelid twitching can be attributed to benign essential blepharospasm. This condition is characterized by the involuntary spasms of the muscles in the eyelids. It can affect both eyelids or just one eyelid, and is likely to be experienced by the person for an extended period of time. This can affect the vision and lead to facial spasms if left untreated. Children are less likely prone to this condition than adults are.

Rare Causes of Eye Twitches

Bell’s palsy and Parkinson’s disease are just two rare examples of nerve disorders that can lead to eyelid twitching.

Hemifacial spasms, a neurological condition, is another rare example that can cause the eyelids to twitch involuntarily. This condition affects the facial muscles, and can be caused by certain medications.

The twitching of the eyes is usually harmless, but it can indicate that there is an illness present. So, how do you know if it’s okay to ignore the eye twitches or if it needs to be checked out by a doctor? If any of the symptoms below have been observed, then it is important to contact a doctor immediately to schedule an appointment.

• A drooping upper eyelid
• The inability to open an eyelid due to severe spasms
• The inflammation of the eyelids
• Persistent twitching for a week or more
• The spasms of facial muscles

A twitching eye will usually resolve on its own without the need for medical intervention. There are some things, though, that you can do at home to reduce the discomfort of the symptoms. The eye can be massaged gently or a warm compress can be applied to the eye. Treatment also depends on the underlying cause. Surgical procedures to remove the nerve responsible may be an option if other treatments fail to alleviate the condition. Physicians may recommend removing the spastic muscles. If symptoms persist for a long period of time, then it is vital to speak to a doctor about it.

Albuterol sulfate side effects

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Posted on 18th November 2013 by admin in Articles

While tablets are one way that albuterol is administered, the medicine can also be prescribed in other forms. Most patients prefer to take the medicine via an inhaler because the mist provides relief right away. Albuterol can also be used in liquid form and put in a nebulizer so that the vapors of the medicine can be inhaled. People also take the medicine in syrup form by mouth to relieve respiratory disorders.

Albuterol is a type of bronchodilator, which means it relaxes the muscles in the airways and can prevent as well as treat bronchospasms. The medication can also prevent exercise-induced bronchospasms.

There are other uses for abluterol, but they are not listed here.

Albuterol Sulfate Minor Side Effects

Minor side effects that you may experience while using albuterol are temporary. This is why medical attention is not necessary for these symptoms. The actual symptoms will likely go away in a few minutes, but it could take a few hours for the effects to totally dissipate. If the symptoms last for more than a week, you should consult your doctor.

One minor side effect you may experience is dizziness or vertigo. This is more likely to take place if you use a nebulizer to take the medication. Patients have also complained about mild to moderate headaches while taking albuterol. Nausea or vomiting can occur after taking the medication as well. Some individuals may also experience involuntary shaking or trembling after taking the prescribed dose of albuterol. Dry throat and coughing is also a very common mild side effect. Keep in mind that if you choose to take the medicine via nebulizer, you may have a dry throat, which can cause coughing. Dryness and a runny nose are also side effects that may occur if you use a nebulizer to administer the albuterol. People have also complained about having trouble sleeping after taking the medication.

Albuterol Sulfate Major Side Effects

Patients have often inquired about whether it is safe to take more than the recommended dosage of albuterol, when the prescribed amount can cause side effects. Taking excess amounts of the medication can lead to intense pain in the chest and headaches. Also, a patient’s blood pressure can rise rapidly after taking the medication, leading to blurry vision, irregular heartbeat and tinnitus, or ringing inside of the ears. Too much albuterol can cause the airways to contract, and this can cause breathing problems. The medicine can also cause potassium levels to drop; as a result, you could experience excessive thirst, along with weakness in the muscles and the urge to urinate frequently.

Allergic Reaction to Albuterol

If you are having an allergic reaction to albuterol, you should get medical attention as soon as possible. The side effects can be very serious in both children and adults. The reaction is a sign that the body is not accepting the medication. If you are allergic to albuterol, one of the symptoms you will likely experience is difficulty breathing. Your skin may also break out into hives or rashes, as inflammation of the face and tongue.

Pain below belly button

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Posted on 16th November 2013 by admin in Articles

The abdomen is an area of the body that houses many different organs. The abdominal region includes the spleen, pancreas, stomach, large and small intestines, liver and gallbladder, which means that if a person has pain in that area it could be coming from any one of those organs. That being so, it’s important to see a doctor and get a proper examination in order to figure out what is causing pain around or below the navel.

The doctor may decide to start with blood tests to find out what is going on. Imaging procedures can also provide a great deal of useful information, with abdominal CT scans or ultrasounds being common choices. Let’s take a look at some of the underlying conditions that can cause pain around the navel.

Appendicitis: The appendix can be found where the large intestine meets the small intestine, and is located in the lower right part of the abdomen. When the appendix becomes inflamed this is known as appendicitis, and it can cause some severe pain and discomfort below the navel. It’s vital to get appendicitis treated as quickly as possible, as any delay could lead to complications.

Gallbladder disease: Gallbladder disease or infection can lead to pain in the abdomen. When bile cannot pass out of the gallbladder due to an obstruction, it can give rise to gallbladder disease. The gallbladder may also be afflicted with gallbladder stones, which can cause abdominal pain.

Chronic constipation: Many people suffer with constipation at one point or another in their lives. However, chronic constipation is a serious problem that is detrimental to the health and requires treatment. When waste passes too slowly through the large intestine, the waste can get harder and become dried up, making it difficult to completely empty the bowels. Poor diet can contribute to chronic constipation.

Bladder inflammation: If the bladder becomes inflamed, a condition known as cystitis, can cause pain below the navel. Cystitis can also cause a sensation of pressure below the navel, a strong or sudden need to urinate, a feeling of burning when urinating, blood in the urine, or a fever. Women are usually more prone to cystitis than men.

Abdominal hernia: A hernia means that a part of one of the organs that resides within the abdomen has protruded through a weak point in the wall of the abdomen. An abdominal hernia will usually cause a sharp pain somewhere in the abdomen. A hernia can be caused by many things including: repeated sneezing, a chronic cough, pregnancy, fluid in the abdominal cavity, straining when urinating or passing a bowel movement, obesity, lifting heavy objects, or chronic lung disease.

Peptic ulcers: Peptic ulcers can cause symptoms including pain in the abdomen, along with bloating, loss of appetite, passing gas, losing weight, burping, nausea, or blood in the stools. Anyone showing the signs of an ulcer is advised to seek immediate medical attention. Ulcers can be caused by a variety of things, including excessive drinking or smoking, poor diet, or a bacterial infection.

Treatment Of Pain below belly button

The best treatment for pain in the abdomen or below the navel will be dependent upon the underlying cause. If the pain is caused by any of the conditions listed above, the physician will need to decide on the best course of treatment. It’s also possible that the pain is coming from the navel itself if the patient has a belly button piercing which has become infected. Any swelling, accumulation of pus, or redness near the piercing site is an indication that infection may be present. If this is the case, antibiotics may be needed to treat it.